When Sulla retired in 79 B.C. a new group of generals fought for control of Rome. 2 of them were Gnaeus Pompey and Julius Caesar. They both had different ideas on how Rome should be ruled.
In the struggle for power Caesar finally got control after Pompey was murdered in 48 B.C. Caesar was a very well educated politician who became a soldier. he had very large military strength and good family alliances. He also had the support of the richest man in Rome:Marcus Licinius Crassus.
In 58 B.C. when Caesar was appointed governor of a Roman province, he build a good, strong, large, and loyal army. Within 7 years he had conquered what is now Belgium and northern France. the senate thought that Caesar was growing too strong so he was ordered to disband his legions and return to Rome. Instead Caesar entered Rome at the head of his troops and became dictator of Rome.
Caesar brought about many good changes to Rome. One, he founded new colonies which solved land problems by redistributing them. This gave ex-soldiers land who had none at all.He began to make a vast transportation network of roads throughout Rome. He also build buildings and drained marshes. This opened up jobs for people that had been fired and could not find another job. Caesar organized and payed fro free to the public Gladiator Games. This kept people happy and prevented angry mobs. The size of the senate had been doubled by Caesar. This gave less power to individual senators but more people had the opportunity to become a senator. Caesar gave roman citizenship to Spaniards, Greeks, and Gauls. He also adopted the Egyptian Calendar which is still in use today.
Caesar did many good things for Rome and its people, but some were still afraid that he would take all power and make himself king. On March 15, 44 B.C. , Caesar was stabbed to death by a group of 60 senators.
Angered by the death of Julius Caesar, the public turned against the Roman government and passed the power to a triumvirate, or a groupe of people with equal power. Mark Antony Caesars closest follower and a popular general took command of Rome territories in the East. Octavian, Caesars grand nephew took control of rule in Africa. All three shared control of the Italian homeland. For a while the triumvirate worked. Then a war broke out between the three leader and Octavian won. He became the first emperor of the roman Empire.
Credit to: Wolfshead